I cannot made bricks without clay.
A quote from Arthur Conan Doyle in one of his many Sherlock Holmes novels



Well-founded and well-reviewed material data are the basis for correct solidification analysis. Accordingly, qoncept has developed a submodel for the calculation of the temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of steels (or other metals) required by the solidification model. These data are calculated specifically for each material, depending on the exact chemical composition.

In addition, the relationship between temperature and phase fractions is calculated by a microsegregation model, which in turn takes into account the specific chemical composition of the material and the cooling rate.

The following two figures show the quasi-binary Fe-C diagram in non-equilibrium state (cooling rate = 1 °C/s) for 0 wt.-% Mn (left figure) and 2.0 wt.-% Mn (right figure). The blue vertical line corresponds to an alloy with 0.16 wt.-% carbon. It can be clearly seen how the increasing carbon content, that narrows the δ-ferrite region, shifts the liquidus solidus and the peritectic transformation to lower temperatures. The points CA, CB and CC are additionally shifted to smaller carbon contents. Thus, in one case (0 wt.-% Mn) an alloy with 0.16 wt.-%C between CA and CB, at 2 wt.-% Mn but already to the right of CB. This has a significant influence on the solidification behavior both in continuous casting and in ingot casting.


The figures below show typical characteristics of thermophysical data such as density, heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The transformation points are easily perceived, which occur from the solidification and the subsequent cooling down to room temperatures,




qoncept offers the possibility of calculating the thermophysical properties for specific steel grades in different models:

  • Latent heat as a function of chemical composition
  • Specific heat capacity (or enthalpy) as a function of temperature and chemical composition
  • Density as a function of temperature and chemical composition
  • Heat conductivity as a function of temperature and chemical composition
  • Phase fractions (liquid or solid fraction) as a function of temperature and chemical composition

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