A continuous casting machine is principally a metallurgical machine, and a good machine must be designed by metallurgists and not by mill builders.
Irving Rossi (1978)



Continuous Casting

A comprehensive analysis of the dedicated states in the continuous casting process from a technologically oriented, metallurgical approach is essential for the following metallurgical interpretations:

  • Understanding of the temperature distribution on the strand surface and selected positions inside the cast strand.
  • Understanding of the shell growth for selected fractions of solid during the whole casting process.
  • Determination of point of total solidification.
  • Determination of optimal positioning of technological devices such as
    • Strand electro-magnetic stirrers
    • Final electro-magnetic stirrers
    • Mechanical or thermal soft-reduction
    • Soft-cooling tunnels

Ingot Casting

Ingot casting is still of fundamental importance for the production of many steel grades, especially for the production of ingots for forging. The complex phenomena during this process must be controlled in order to maintain a good quality of the final product. The optimal casting parameters in ingot casting are in a multi-dimensional relationship to each other. The casting speed not only depends on the ingot format, but must also be defined as a function on the steel analysis, the superheat, and the casting sequence. Other important casting parameters are the type and quantity of the casting powder, the exothermic powder and the covering powder.

The numerical simulation can be a highly efficient application:

  • Optimize mold geometry and the entire casting set (funnels, plates, channels and hot tops)
  • Optimization of casting parameters
  • Minimizing pores, porosity and segregation

qoncept makes use of numerical algorithms and models to compute the thermo-physical fundamentals which occur during the continuous casting process. Details on the numerical basics can be found in:

[1] Michelic, S. et al.: Modelling Solidification in Continuous Casting: Algorithms and Boundary Conditions, 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modelling of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking Steelsim 2009, Leoben, A, 2009, 1–8.
[2] Michelic, S. et al.: Development, Implementation and Verification of a Transient Numeric Solidification Model of a Continuous Bloom Caster, 7th European Continuous Casting Conference, Düsseldorf, 2011, 1–10.

The following figure shows typical results of solidification calculations, which is (1) temperature distributions and (2) shell growth and shell thickness for different solid fractions.


Profound and well verified material data are the basis for proper solidification analyses. Accordingly, qoncept developed a sub-model to calculate temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of steels (or other metals) which are required by the numerical model. These data are specifically calculated for each material, depending on the exact chemical composition.





qoncept offers computational solidification analyses as a service or the implementation of the computational casting application at our customers for off- and on-line calculations (computational solidification solution).

Computational Solidification Analysis

qoncept provides a comprehensive analysis of the dedicated states in the casting process based on customer’s input data. In order to correctly mirror the reality, certain input data have to be provided. In case data are not available, qoncept has a large casting parameter database to make respective assumptions.

Continuous Casting Machine Data considered:

  • Cast Section
  • Casting Speed
  • Tundish Superheat
  • Steel Grade (Chemical Composition)
  • Mold Length
  • Length of Secondary Cooling Zone

Data considered for ingot casting:

  • Mould Size
  • Casting Speed
  • Ladle Superheat
  • Steel Grade (Chemical Composition)
  • Mold Dimensions

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Computational Casting Solution

The solution to improve the casting process by means of a comprehensive on-line model which is based on the real metallurgy that occurs in the casting process. We integrate our computational solidification application within your existing IT landscape (typically a Level-2 System).

Get in touch with us to receive an individual quote.